FastOcean is a new multi-wavelength Fast Repetition Rate fluorometer for field and laboratory studies of phytoplankton photosynthesis and gross primary production.
This high performance, Fast Repetition Rate fluorometer is suitable for use in a wide range of applications from the assessment of primary production within the world's oceans to environmental monitoring within reservoirs and rivers.
This third generation sensor is smaller, lighter and more capable than its predecessors, with integrated pressure sensor (FastOcean PTX).
- Applications and Features
- In situ estimation of gross primary productivity (GPP): With fully configured FastOcean-based system
- In vitro estimation of GPP: By combining FastOcean with the FastAct laboratory system
- Sea-truthing of satellite data: Using new algorithms for the estimation of GPP and light absorption
- Bloom detection: Employing three independently adjustable excitation wavelengths
- Toxicant detection: Using proven real time data analysis methods
- Phytoplankton cultures: Real time monitoring of growth rates
- Third generation FRRf3: Smaller, lighter and more capable than its predecessors, with integrated pressure sensor (FastOcean PTX)
- New data analysis methods: Which remove the requirement for independent measurement of PSII reaction centre concentration for estimation of GPP
- Three excitation wavelengths: Independently controlled LED arrays for fluorescence excitation centred at 450, 530 and 624 nm
- FastPro8 GUI: Provides full control of in situ and in vitro systems, plus real time data analysis, presentation and archiving
- Stand alone or integrated: Internal data storage and full integration with the FastPro8 GUI allow FastOcean to be deployed in a wide range of systems and situations
- Extended dynamic range: From a combination of near infrared (NIR) enhanced photomultiplier (PMT), 16-bit ADC and auto gain
LED Excitation: 450, 530 and 624 nm with custom 'doughnut' blocking filter to minimise filter breakthrough (effectively zero under normal operation) Excitation pulses: 1 µs 'flashlets' on a minimum 2 µs pitch (programmable) allows for single turnover (ST) and multiple turnover (MT) measurements Signal detection: NIR-enhanced PMT with 10-stage dynode chain and ultra-quiet power supply Detection filtering: 2 x 3 mm Schott RG665 + 682 nm peak, 30 nm half bandwidth provides maximum rejection of non-PSII fluorescence FRR dynamic range: 16-bit ADC provides an effective 15-bit range at each PMT setting
Valid FRR data at signal equivalent to chlorophyll a concentrations from below 0.02 mg m-3 to more than 200 mg m-3
16-bit ADC for pressure (PTX version), 2 π PAR and one additional analogue transducer
Automated conversion of ADC values to instrument units within FastPro8 (dbar for pressure, µmol photons m-2 s-1 for PAR)
Internal storage: 16 GB with data transfer at USB 2.0 speeds Power requirements: 18 to 36 VDC, protected to 72 V, 4.8 W (5 W peak) Operating temperature: -10 to 50°C External dimensions: 88 x 284 mm (diameter x length) excluding connectors (< 1.8 litres) External materials: Titanium pressure housing, A4 stainless screws and acrylic lens Mass (weight in air, water): 2.9 kg (28 N, 10 N) External connectors: 6-pin (M): Power in + RS422
5-pin (F): USB 2.0 for file download and firmware updates
4-pin (F): Analogue input plus 12 V out for PAR sensor
8-pin (F): Analogue input plus 12 V out plus trigger line / synch
Kolber, Z. S., Prásîl, O. and Falkowski, P. G. 1998. Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast-repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1367:88-106.
Oxborough, K. Moore, C.M., Suggett, D.J., Lawson, T., Chan, H.G. and Geider, R.G. 2012 Direct estimation of functional PSII reaction centre concentration and PSII electron flux on a volume basis: a new approach to the analysis of Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry (FRRf) data. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods – In press.
- Data Acquisition
Full integration of a new appraoch to GPP estimation
FRR data from FastOcean sensors can be processed within FastPro8. These data can be input in real time or loaded from internal FastOcean data files. In addition to the established sigma-based algorithm (Kolber et al. 1998), FastPro8 can also generate fluorescence parameters based on the absorption algorithm, as described by Oxborough et al. (2012). Advantages of the absorption algorithm include a lack of requirement for independent estimation of PSII reaction centre concentration for GPP calculations and improved signal to noise at high PAR levels.
The Parameters to show dialog provides the full range available within FastPro8. Parameters can be displayed and plotted within FastPro8 and exported to other applications, such as Excel and MATLAB. FastPro8 provides a full range of options for setting up FastOcean, with or without a FastAct system.
The FRRf3 protocol settings dialog is used to set up the protocol for a single acquisition. In this case, a single turnover acquisition has been set up, for use with a static sample. In moving water, the relaxation phase (Rel) might be omitted, whilst the sequence interval (Seq int (ms):) could be much shorter.
A protocol 'loop' can be set to link several different protocols in a continuous sequence, with no significant time gap between protocols. For example, a loop of three protocols could provide 450 nm excitation alone, followed by 450 + 530 nm then 450 + 624 nm.
Real time profiling APD system: Real time version of the Autonomous profiling APD system shown above. Substitutes a 12-core sea cable and 24 V interface unit for the battery pack. Dark chambers: A range of dark chambers and light baffles are available for use in different situations (high and low biomass, clear and cloudy waters, flow through and profiling applications). Programmable 24 Vbattery pack (2220-112-PL):
Used within the Autonomous profiling APD system. Provides independent timing of pump and FastOcean sensors.
24 V interface unit (2292-003-PL): Provides power and RS422 to USB interface to 2 x FastOcean sensors. Used with the Real time profiling APD system. 2 Pi PAR sensor: The output from this PAR sensor is automatically logged with FastOcean FRR data.
Autonomous profiling APD system: Integrates 2 x FastOcean sensors (ambient plus dark), pumped dark chamber, programmable battery pack and PAR sensor for autonomous, in situ estimation of GPP
FastOcean plus FastAct: Provides an extremely flexible real time in vitro system for running RLCs and complex protocols under FastPro8
FastOcean in the Press:
Sophie Richier, Anna I. Macey, Nicola J. Pratt, David J. Honey, C. Mark Moore, Thomas S. Bibby, Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre. Abundances of Iron-Binding Photosynthetic and Nitrogen-Fixing Proteins of Trichodesmium Both in Culture and In Situ from the North Atlantic. Plus One - 2012. Link to article. Download pdf.
Oxborough, K. Moore, C.M., Suggett, D.J., Lawson, T., Chan, H.G. and Geider, R.G. Direct estimation of functional PSII reaction centre concentration and PSII electron flux on a volume basis: a new approach to the analysis of Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry (FRRf) data. Liminology & Oceanography: Methods – 2012, 10:142-154. Link to article. Download pdf.