Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometry provides a non-intrusive and non-destructive method for probing photosynthesis by phytoplankton. The two FRR fluorometers within the FastOcean Ambient Plus Dark (APD) profiling system generate the data required to estimate the electron flux through all photosystem II (PSII) reaction centres per unit volume of sea water, on wide spatial and temporal scales. Given that Gross Primary Productivity by phytoplankton (GPP) is generally the main sink for PSII electron flux, these data can be used to estimate GPP. When the APD system is not being used for profiling, one or both of the FastOcean sensors can quickly be removed from the frame and coupled with one or two Act2 laboratory systems (see separate brochure).
The combination of FastOcean and Act2 allows fully automated fluorescence light curves (FLCs) to be run on discrete samples collected in the field or phytoplankton cultures.
- How does it work?
- Parameters available
- How does it work?
- Parameters available
- Smaller, lighter and more flexible in operation than previous generations, while retaining a 600 m depth rating and robust construction
- Three excitation wavelengths (centred at 450, 530 and 624 nm) for improved assessments of community structure and estimation of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
- Extensive PC-based software for sensor programming, real time automated sensor control and real time data acquisition, analysis and archiving
- Full real time operation through a cable connection of up to 200 m or completely autonomous operation using battery power and internal data logging
- Ambient and dark-adapted data can be synchronised and combined with PAR values to generate estimates of PSII electron flux per unit volume of sea water
- A single FastOcean sensor can also be integrated with the Act2 laboratory system to generate fluorescence light curves (FLCs) from cultures or static samples collected in the field
Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometry provides a non-intrusive and non-destructive method for probing photosynthesis by phytoplankton. The two FRR fluorometers within the FastOcean Ambient Plus Dark (APD) profiling system generate the data required to estimate the electron flux through all photosystem II (PSII) reaction centres per unit volume of sea water, on wide spatial and temporal scales.
Given that Gross Primary Productivity by phytoplankton (GPP) is generally the main sink for PSII electron flux, these data can be used to estimate GPP. When the APD system is not being used for profiling, one or both of the FastOcean sensors can quickly be removed from the frame and coupled with one or two Act2 laboratory systems (see separate brochure). The combination of FastOcean and Act2 allows fully automated fluorescence light curves (FLCs) to be run on discrete samples collected in the field or phytoplankton cultures. The FastOcean APD Profiling System is available from Chelsea Technologies Group Ltd.
Data from the Dark and Ambient sensors within an APD system can easily be combined using tools incorporated within the FastPro8 software package.
The FastOcean sensors incorporated within the APD profiling system are Fast Repetition Rate fluorometers running in single turnover mode. Each measurement sequence is between 200 μs and 2.5 ms with a 40 to 100 ms interval between sequences. The system can be programmed to run single excitation LED combination or loop through two or more different combinations.
Within the supplied FastPro8 software package, analysis of primary FRRf data is based on the equations provided by Kolber et al. (1998 - Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1367:88-106), while secondary analysis of FRRf data is based on the absorption method described by Oxborough et al. (2012 – Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 10:142-154).
Estimation of GPP from FRR data is through the JVPII parameter, which is calculated as the product of the absorption coefficient for PSII light harvesting (derived rom the dark FRR data), the efficiency of PSII photochemistry (derived from the ambient FRR data) and photon irradiance (from the included PAR sensor). JVPII provides an estimate of the electron flux through all PSII reaction centres per unit volume. Derivation of a GPP is simply the value of JVPII divided by the number of electrons required to fix each carbon.
A wide range of fluorescence parameters are calculated by FastPro8, including:
- The absorption cross section of PSII photochemistry (σPII)
- Absorption coefficient of PSII light harvesting (aLHII)
- Electron flux through PSII per unit volume (JVPII)
- PSII photochemical efficiency
- Photosystem II reaction centre concentration [RCII]
The FastOcean APD profiling system can be supplied in real time or battery configurations.
- The real time configuration is generally supplied with a profiling cable of up to 200 m in length. This cable allows for real time data acquisition and system control through a PC running our FastPro8 software.
- With the battery configuration, data are logged within each FastOcean sensor. Data files are then downloaded through a USB port and processed using the FastPro8 software package.
- Both configurations include a 0 – 60 bar pressure sensor and a PAR sensor. Data from both sensors are logged by the ambient FastOcean sensor with each FRR acquisition.
- Both FastOcean sensors within the APD system are suitable for combining with our laboratory-based Act2 system for running fully automated fluorescence light curves (see separate brochure).
FastOcean Sensor and APD System
|Excitation LED channels||
3 x 6 custom-made LEDs, centred at 450, 530 and 624 nm.
630 nm short-pass filter (>OD6 between 655 and 750 nm)
NIR-enhanced PMT with stabilised power supply
2 x 3 mm RG665 glass filters plus 682 nm, 30 nm half bandwidth interference filter
16-bit ADC provides an effective 15-bit range at each PMT eht setting.
|Pressure and PAR||
16-bit ADC for pressure sensor and 2π PAR sensor.
18 to 36 VDC operating range. Protected to 72 VDC. 4.8 W continuous, 5 W peak
|Operating ambient temperature||
-10 to 50°C
|External dimensions of FastOcean sensor||
88 x 284 mm (diameter x length) excluding connectors
|External dimensions of APD system||
316 x 292 x 685 mm (width x depth x height)
|Mass (weight in air, water) of FastOcean sensor||
2.9 kg (28 N, 10 N)
|Mass (weight in air, water) of APD system||
20.3 kg (200 N, 98 N)
In view of our continual improvement, the designs and specifications of our products may vary from those described.
Download Installation Files & Documentation:
Act2run and Act2 documentation
+ Link to installation files and documentation
FastPro8 and FastOcean documentation
+ Link to installation files and documentation
FASTpro, FastAct and Mk II FastTracka documentation
+ Link to installation files and documentation
Fast Repitition Rate Fluorometry in the Press:
“Photosynthesis and primary production in Lake Kasumigaura (Japan) monitored monthly since 1981” by Noriko Takamura & Megumi Nakagawa (Ecological Research).
Measuring phytoplankton primary production: review of existing methodologies and suggestions for a common approach, Kromkamp, J. Capuzzo, E. & Philippart, C.J.M. NIOZ, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research. EcApRHA Deliverable – 2017.
Abundances of Iron-Binding Photosynthetic and Nitrogen-Fixing Proteins of Trichodesmium Both in Culture and In Situ from the North Atlantic. Plus One - 2012., Sophie Richier, Anna I. Macey, Nicola J. Pratt, David J. Honey, C. Mark Moore, Thomas S. Bibby, Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre. Download article pdf.
Direct estimation of functional PSII reaction centre concentration and PSII electron flux on a volume basis: a new approach to the analysis of Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry (FRRf) data. Liminology & Oceanography: Methods – 2012, 10:142-154. Liminology & Oceanography: Methods – 2012, 10:142-154. Oxborough, K. Moore, C.M., Suggett, D.J., Lawson, T., Chan, H.G. and Geider, R.G. Link to article. Download pdf.
Long-Term Acclimation to Iron Limitation Reveals New Insights in Metabolism Regulation of Synechecoccus sp. PCC7002. Frontiers in Marine Science – 2017. 4:247:1-13. Blanco-Ameijeiras, S. Cosio, C. Hassler, C.S. Department for Environmental and Aquatic Sciences.
Transcriptomic Analyses of Scrippsiella trochoiea Reveals Processes Regulating Encystment and Dormancy in the Life Cycle of a Dinoflagellate, with a Particular Attention to the Role of Abscisic Acid. Frontiers in Microbiology – 2017. 8:2450:1-19. Deng, Y. Hu, Z. Shang, L. Peng, Q. Tang, Y.Z. Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology.
Cell Cycle Dynamics of Cultured Coral Endosymbiotic Microalgae (Symbiodinium) Across Different Types (Species) Under Alternate Light and Temperature Conditions. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. – 2018. Accepted author manuscript. Fujise, L. Nitschke, M.R. Frommlet, J.C. Serodio, J. Woodcock, S. Ralph, P.J. Suggett, D.J.
A molecular physiology basis for functional diversity of hydrogen peroxide production amongst Symbiodinium spp. (Dinophyceae). Marine Biology – 2017. 164:46:3073-3075. Goyen, S. Pernice, M. Szabo, M. Warner, M.E. Ralph, P.J. Suggett, D.J.
Measuring phytoplankton primary production: review of existing methodologies and suggestions for a common approach. EcApRHA Deliverable – 2017. Kromkamp, J. Capuzzo, E. & Philippart, C.J.M. NIOZ, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research.
Mechanisms of silver nanoparticle toxicity to the coastal marine diatom Chaetoceros curvisetus. Nature Scientific Reports – 2017. 7:10777:1-10. Lodeiro, P. Browning, T.J. Achterberg, E.P. Guillou, A. El-Shawawi, M.S. Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre.
Modelled estimates of spatial variability of iron stress in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Biogeosciences – 2017. 14:3883-3897. Ryan-Keogh, T.J. Thomalla, S.J. Mtshali, T.N. Little, H. Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observatory, Natural Resources and Environment.
Two Southern Ocean diatoms are more sensitive to ocean acidification and changes in irradiance than the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis antarctica. Physiologia Plantarum – 2017. 160:155-170. Trimborn, S. Thoms, S. Brenneis, T. Heiden, J.P. Beszteri, S. Bischof, K. Department of Biogeosciences, Alfred Wegner Institute for Polar and Marine Research.
Associate Professor David Suggett, Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology, Sydney - “My group has recently purchased a FastOcean after a decade of work with previous single wavelength versions (FastTracka I & II, and other commercially available and custom built active fluorometers), but this instrument is the best yet: The FastOcean represents state-of-the-art “evolution” of both the underlying technology and concepts of Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry, developed by an expert in fluorometry (Dr Kevin Oxborough) alongside the academic community; the result is an incredibly versatile tool that meets my continually interchanging needs between routine field deployments examining marine primary productivity to highly specific studies of physiological processes in the lab. The great ethos that Chelsea places on continually engaging with their user community ensures that FRRf-based approaches are really pushing back the limits of how we understand marine primary productivity.”
Dr C Mark Moore, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, UK - "Having worked using active chlorophyll fluorometers for the last 15 years, it has been great to see how CTG have remained committed to developing and improving their line of Fast Repetition Rate fluorometers. Having previously worked with the FastTracka I and II instruments, I recently had my first opportunity to use the new multi-wavelength FastOcean system and was very impressed by the increased versatility of this instrument, which should allow us to investigate the photophysiology of mixed communities of phytoplankton in a more robust manner, alongside providing exciting new insights.”
Dr David McKee, University of Strathclyde, UK - "Just wanted to report that we have received the FastOcean & FastAct Laboratory System and have started setting up. Thank you very much for the quick turnaround on this - greatly appreciated! We initially chose to purchase the FastOcean for several reason, these include the fact that the FastOcean builds on the extensive legacy of the FastTracka which provides a wealth of underpinning science to establish well-documented context. The combination of FastOcean and Fast Act provides a fairly unique way to establish physiological state and gross primary production estimate. I am also particularly keen to work with the FastOcean as it is directly backed up with the expertise provided by Kevin Oxborough. I think it is extremely important that Chelsea have invested in someone who not only understands the science but continues to lead the science. Other competitors may be able to match some of these, but I do not think they can offer all of them."
Dr Jacco Kromkamp, NIOZ, The Netherlands - "We purchased a Chelsea FastOcean System over the competitors because it is a very robust machine, it has a good GUI and it can be used both in situ and in the laboratory. In addition it estimates the concentration of RCII, allowing calculations of the absolute rate of photosynthetic electron transport."
Dr Samuel R Laney, Associate Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA - "I've used various in situ fluorometers over the years in different projects, and I wasn't surprised to see Chelsea's Trilux come out on top in a sensitivity comparison I recently performed among similar sensors. Chelsea has a well deserved reputation for making quality fluorometers, backed by careful attention to calibrations and documentation."
Dr Evelyn Lawrenz, Institute of Microbiology, Czech Republic - "The FastOcean & FastAct Laboratory System arrived here yesterday afternoon. I assembled it already and I have to say, I was really impressed by the care with which the kit was put together. Even the tubing, smallest connectors and Allen keys were included. That is a super service! It is up and running already and I will spend some time playing with it. Once again, thank you to the Chelsea Team!"